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Linux内核--网络协议栈深入分析(三)--BSD socket和传输层sock  

2013-09-25 10:52:38|  分类: Linux |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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作者:闫明

Linux内核中协议族有INET协议族,UNIX协议族等,我们还是以INET协议族为例。

下面是内核中的协议族声明:

/* Supported address families. */
#define AF_UNSPEC	0
#define AF_UNIX		1	/* Unix domain sockets 		*/
#define AF_LOCAL	1	/* POSIX name for AF_UNIX	*/
#define AF_INET		2	/* Internet IP Protocol 	*/
#define AF_AX25		3	/* Amateur Radio AX.25 		*/
#define AF_IPX		4	/* Novell IPX 			*/
#define AF_APPLETALK	5	/* AppleTalk DDP 		*/
#define AF_NETROM	6	/* Amateur Radio NET/ROM 	*/
#define AF_BRIDGE	7	/* Multiprotocol bridge 	*/
#define AF_ATMPVC	8	/* ATM PVCs			*/
#define AF_X25		9	/* Reserved for X.25 project 	*/
#define AF_INET6	10	/* IP version 6			*/
#define AF_ROSE		11	/* Amateur Radio X.25 PLP	*/
#define AF_DECnet	12	/* Reserved for DECnet project	*/
#define AF_NETBEUI	13	/* Reserved for 802.2LLC project*/
#define AF_SECURITY	14	/* Security callback pseudo AF */
#define AF_KEY		15      /* PF_KEY key management API */
#define AF_NETLINK	16
#define AF_ROUTE	AF_NETLINK /* Alias to emulate 4.4BSD */
#define AF_PACKET	17	/* Packet family		*/
#define AF_ASH		18	/* Ash				*/
#define AF_ECONET	19	/* Acorn Econet			*/
#define AF_ATMSVC	20	/* ATM SVCs			*/
#define AF_RDS		21	/* RDS sockets 			*/
#define AF_SNA		22	/* Linux SNA Project (nutters!) */
#define AF_IRDA		23	/* IRDA sockets			*/
#define AF_PPPOX	24	/* PPPoX sockets		*/
#define AF_WANPIPE	25	/* Wanpipe API Sockets */
#define AF_LLC		26	/* Linux LLC			*/
#define AF_CAN		29	/* Controller Area Network      */
#define AF_TIPC		30	/* TIPC sockets			*/
#define AF_BLUETOOTH	31	/* Bluetooth sockets 		*/
#define AF_IUCV		32	/* IUCV sockets			*/
#define AF_RXRPC	33	/* RxRPC sockets 		*/
#define AF_ISDN		34	/* mISDN sockets 		*/
#define AF_PHONET	35	/* Phonet sockets		*/
#define AF_IEEE802154	36	/* IEEE802154 sockets		*/
#define AF_CAIF		37	/* CAIF sockets			*/
#define AF_ALG		38	/* Algorithm sockets		*/
#define AF_NFC		39	/* NFC sockets			*/
#define AF_MAX		40	/* For now.. */

内核中的PF_***和AF_***其实可以混用,它的宏定义如下:
/* Protocol families, same as address families. */
#define PF_UNSPEC	AF_UNSPEC
#define PF_UNIX		AF_UNIX
#define PF_LOCAL	AF_LOCAL
#define PF_INET		AF_INET
#define PF_AX25		AF_AX25
#define PF_IPX		AF_IPX
#define PF_APPLETALK	AF_APPLETALK
#define	PF_NETROM	AF_NETROM
#define PF_BRIDGE	AF_BRIDGE
#define PF_ATMPVC	AF_ATMPVC
#define PF_X25		AF_X25
#define PF_INET6	AF_INET6
#define PF_ROSE		AF_ROSE
#define PF_DECnet	AF_DECnet
#define PF_NETBEUI	AF_NETBEUI
#define PF_SECURITY	AF_SECURITY
#define PF_KEY		AF_KEY
#define PF_NETLINK	AF_NETLINK
#define PF_ROUTE	AF_ROUTE
#define PF_PACKET	AF_PACKET
#define PF_ASH		AF_ASH
#define PF_ECONET	AF_ECONET
#define PF_ATMSVC	AF_ATMSVC
#define PF_RDS		AF_RDS
#define PF_SNA		AF_SNA
#define PF_IRDA		AF_IRDA
#define PF_PPPOX	AF_PPPOX
#define PF_WANPIPE	AF_WANPIPE
#define PF_LLC		AF_LLC
#define PF_CAN		AF_CAN
#define PF_TIPC		AF_TIPC
#define PF_BLUETOOTH	AF_BLUETOOTH
#define PF_IUCV		AF_IUCV
#define PF_RXRPC	AF_RXRPC
#define PF_ISDN		AF_ISDN
#define PF_PHONET	AF_PHONET
#define PF_IEEE802154	AF_IEEE802154
#define PF_CAIF		AF_CAIF
#define PF_ALG		AF_ALG
#define PF_NFC		AF_NFC
#define PF_MAX		AF_MAX

以后的分析就是以INET协议族为例来分析的。

下面的结构体就是在系统初始化时用来管理协议族初始化的结构体:

struct net_proto_family {
	int		family;
	int		(*create)(struct net *net, struct socket *sock,
				  int protocol, int kern);
	struct module	*owner;
};
第一个属性就是协议族的宏定义,如PF_INET;

第二个属性就是协议族对应的初始化函数指针;

INET协议族对应该结构的定义如下:

static const struct net_proto_family inet_family_ops = {
	.family = PF_INET,
	.create = inet_create,
	.owner	= THIS_MODULE,
};

下面结构体是协议族操作集结构体定义:
struct proto_ops {
	int		family;
	struct module	*owner;
	int		(*release)   (struct socket *sock);
	int		(*bind)	     (struct socket *sock,
				      struct sockaddr *myaddr,
				      int sockaddr_len);
	int		(*connect)   (struct socket *sock,
				      struct sockaddr *vaddr,
				      int sockaddr_len, int flags);
	int		(*socketpair)(struct socket *sock1,
				      struct socket *sock2);
	int		(*accept)    (struct socket *sock,
				      struct socket *newsock, int flags);
	int		(*getname)   (struct socket *sock,
				      struct sockaddr *addr,
				      int *sockaddr_len, int peer);
	unsigned int	(*poll)	     (struct file *file, struct socket *sock,
				      struct poll_table_struct *wait);
	int		(*ioctl)     (struct socket *sock, unsigned int cmd,
				      unsigned long arg);
#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT
	int	 	(*compat_ioctl) (struct socket *sock, unsigned int cmd,
				      unsigned long arg);
#endif
	int		(*listen)    (struct socket *sock, int len);
	int		(*shutdown)  (struct socket *sock, int flags);
	int		(*setsockopt)(struct socket *sock, int level,
				      int optname, char __user *optval, unsigned int optlen);
	int		(*getsockopt)(struct socket *sock, int level,
				      int optname, char __user *optval, int __user *optlen);
#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT
	int		(*compat_setsockopt)(struct socket *sock, int level,
				      int optname, char __user *optval, unsigned int optlen);
	int		(*compat_getsockopt)(struct socket *sock, int level,
				      int optname, char __user *optval, int __user *optlen);
#endif
	int		(*sendmsg)   (struct kiocb *iocb, struct socket *sock,
				      struct msghdr *m, size_t total_len);
	int		(*recvmsg)   (struct kiocb *iocb, struct socket *sock,
				      struct msghdr *m, size_t total_len,
				      int flags);
	int		(*mmap)	     (struct file *file, struct socket *sock,
				      struct vm_area_struct * vma);
	ssize_t		(*sendpage)  (struct socket *sock, struct page *page,
				      int offset, size_t size, int flags);
	ssize_t 	(*splice_read)(struct socket *sock,  loff_t *ppos,
				       struct pipe_inode_info *pipe, size_t len, unsigned int flags);
};

INET协议族中TCP和UDP协议对应的上述操作集的定义不同:

TCP协议z在INET层操作集inet_stream_ops

const struct proto_ops inet_stream_ops = {
	.family		   = PF_INET,
	.owner		   = THIS_MODULE,
	.release	   = inet_release,
	.bind		   = inet_bind,
	.connect	   = inet_stream_connect,
	.socketpair	   = sock_no_socketpair,
	.accept		   = inet_accept,
	.getname	   = inet_getname,
	.poll		   = tcp_poll,
	.ioctl		   = inet_ioctl,
	.listen		   = inet_listen,
	.shutdown	   = inet_shutdown,
	.setsockopt	   = sock_common_setsockopt,
	.getsockopt	   = sock_common_getsockopt,
	.sendmsg	   = inet_sendmsg,
	.recvmsg	   = inet_recvmsg,
	.mmap		   = sock_no_mmap,
	.sendpage	   = inet_sendpage,
	.splice_read	   = tcp_splice_read,
#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT
	.compat_setsockopt = compat_sock_common_setsockopt,
	.compat_getsockopt = compat_sock_common_getsockopt,
	.compat_ioctl	   = inet_compat_ioctl,
#endif
};
UDP协议在INET层操作集inet_dgram_ops
const struct proto_ops inet_dgram_ops = {
	.family		   = PF_INET,
	.owner		   = THIS_MODULE,
	.release	   = inet_release,
	.bind		   = inet_bind,
	.connect	   = inet_dgram_connect,
	.socketpair	   = sock_no_socketpair,
	.accept		   = sock_no_accept,
	.getname	   = inet_getname,
	.poll		   = udp_poll,
	.ioctl		   = inet_ioctl,
	.listen		   = sock_no_listen,
	.shutdown	   = inet_shutdown,
	.setsockopt	   = sock_common_setsockopt,
	.getsockopt	   = sock_common_getsockopt,
	.sendmsg	   = inet_sendmsg,
	.recvmsg	   = inet_recvmsg,
	.mmap		   = sock_no_mmap,
	.sendpage	   = inet_sendpage,
#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT
	.compat_setsockopt = compat_sock_common_setsockopt,
	.compat_getsockopt = compat_sock_common_getsockopt,
	.compat_ioctl	   = inet_compat_ioctl,
#endif
};

上面两个操作集是属于INET协议族层次,可以由协议族层套接字socket来管理,下面是协议族层析的套接字结构体(BSD Socket)定义:
/**
 *  struct socket - general BSD socket
 *  @state: socket state (%SS_CONNECTED, etc)
 *  @type: socket type (%SOCK_STREAM, etc)
 *  @flags: socket flags (%SOCK_ASYNC_NOSPACE, etc)
 *  @ops: protocol specific socket operations
 *  @file: File back pointer for gc
 *  @sk: internal networking protocol agnostic socket representation
 *  @wq: wait queue for several uses
 */
struct socket {
	socket_state		state;

	kmemcheck_bitfield_begin(type);
	short			type;
	kmemcheck_bitfield_end(type);

	unsigned long		flags;

	struct socket_wq __rcu	*wq;

	struct file		*file;
	struct sock		*sk;
	const struct proto_ops	*ops;
};

最后一个属性就指向了上面所述的操作集。若使用TCP协议,ops就是inet_stream_ops,若是UDP协议,ops就是inet_dgram_ops。

short type属性的取值可以是如下值:

enum sock_type {
	SOCK_DGRAM	= 1,
	SOCK_STREAM	= 2,
	SOCK_RAW	= 3,
	SOCK_RDM	= 4,
	SOCK_SEQPACKET	= 5,
	SOCK_DCCP	= 6,
	SOCK_PACKET	= 10,
};

传输层的协议操作集结构体定义:

struct proto {
	void			(*close)(struct sock *sk, 
					long timeout);
	int			(*connect)(struct sock *sk,
				        struct sockaddr *uaddr, 
					int addr_len);
	int			(*disconnect)(struct sock *sk, int flags);

	struct sock *		(*accept) (struct sock *sk, int flags, int *err);

	int			(*ioctl)(struct sock *sk, int cmd,
					 unsigned long arg);
	int			(*init)(struct sock *sk);
	void			(*destroy)(struct sock *sk);
	void			(*shutdown)(struct sock *sk, int how);
	int			(*setsockopt)(struct sock *sk, int level, 
					int optname, char __user *optval,
					unsigned int optlen);
	int			(*getsockopt)(struct sock *sk, int level, 
					int optname, char __user *optval, 
					int __user *option);  	 
#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT
	int			(*compat_setsockopt)(struct sock *sk,
					int level,
					int optname, char __user *optval,
					unsigned int optlen);
	int			(*compat_getsockopt)(struct sock *sk,
					int level,
					int optname, char __user *optval,
					int __user *option);
	int			(*compat_ioctl)(struct sock *sk,
					unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg);
#endif
	int			(*sendmsg)(struct kiocb *iocb, struct sock *sk,
					   struct msghdr *msg, size_t len);
	int			(*recvmsg)(struct kiocb *iocb, struct sock *sk,
					   struct msghdr *msg,
					size_t len, int noblock, int flags, 
					int *addr_len);
	int			(*sendpage)(struct sock *sk, struct page *page,
					int offset, size_t size, int flags);
	int			(*bind)(struct sock *sk, 
					struct sockaddr *uaddr, int addr_len);

	int			(*backlog_rcv) (struct sock *sk, 
						struct sk_buff *skb);

	/* Keeping track of sk's, looking them up, and port selection methods. */
	void			(*hash)(struct sock *sk);
	void			(*unhash)(struct sock *sk);
	void			(*rehash)(struct sock *sk);
	int			(*get_port)(struct sock *sk, unsigned short snum);
	void			(*clear_sk)(struct sock *sk, int size);

	/* Keeping track of sockets in use */
#ifdef CONFIG_PROC_FS
	unsigned int		inuse_idx;
#endif

	/* Memory pressure */
	void			(*enter_memory_pressure)(struct sock *sk);
	atomic_long_t		*memory_allocated;	/* Current allocated memory. */
	struct percpu_counter	*sockets_allocated;	/* Current number of sockets. */
	/*
	 * Pressure flag: try to collapse.
	 * Technical note: it is used by multiple contexts non atomically.
	 * All the __sk_mem_schedule() is of this nature: accounting
	 * is strict, actions are advisory and have some latency.
	 */
	int			*memory_pressure;
	long			*sysctl_mem;
	int			*sysctl_wmem;
	int			*sysctl_rmem;
	int			max_header;
	bool			no_autobind;

	struct kmem_cache	*slab;
	unsigned int		obj_size;
	int			slab_flags;

	struct percpu_counter	*orphan_count;

	struct request_sock_ops	*rsk_prot;
	struct timewait_sock_ops *twsk_prot;

	union {
		struct inet_hashinfo	*hashinfo;
		struct udp_table	*udp_table;
		struct raw_hashinfo	*raw_hash;
	} h;

	struct module		*owner;

	char			name[32];

	struct list_head	node;
#ifdef SOCK_REFCNT_DEBUG
	atomic_t		socks;
#endif
};
该结构体和proto_ops的区别是:该结构体和具体的传输层协议相关,其中的函数指针指向对应的协议的相应的操作函数。


TCP协议的操作集定义如下:

struct proto tcp_prot = {
	.name			= "TCP",
	.owner			= THIS_MODULE,
	.close			= tcp_close,
	.connect		= tcp_v4_connect,
	.disconnect		= tcp_disconnect,
	.accept			= inet_csk_accept,
	.ioctl			= tcp_ioctl,
	.init			= tcp_v4_init_sock,
	.destroy		= tcp_v4_destroy_sock,
	.shutdown		= tcp_shutdown,
	.setsockopt		= tcp_setsockopt,
	.getsockopt		= tcp_getsockopt,
	.recvmsg		= tcp_recvmsg,
	.sendmsg		= tcp_sendmsg,
	.sendpage		= tcp_sendpage,
	.backlog_rcv		= tcp_v4_do_rcv,
	.hash			= inet_hash,
	.unhash			= inet_unhash,
	.get_port		= inet_csk_get_port,
	.enter_memory_pressure	= tcp_enter_memory_pressure,
	.sockets_allocated	= &tcp_sockets_allocated,
	.orphan_count		= &tcp_orphan_count,
	.memory_allocated	= &tcp_memory_allocated,
	.memory_pressure	= &tcp_memory_pressure,
	.sysctl_mem		= sysctl_tcp_mem,
	.sysctl_wmem		= sysctl_tcp_wmem,
	.sysctl_rmem		= sysctl_tcp_rmem,
	.max_header		= MAX_TCP_HEADER,
	.obj_size		= sizeof(struct tcp_sock),
	.slab_flags		= SLAB_DESTROY_BY_RCU,
	.twsk_prot		= &tcp_timewait_sock_ops,
	.rsk_prot		= &tcp_request_sock_ops,
	.h.hashinfo		= &tcp_hashinfo,
	.no_autobind		= true,
#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT
	.compat_setsockopt	= compat_tcp_setsockopt,
	.compat_getsockopt	= compat_tcp_getsockopt,
#endif
};


UDP协议的操作集则为:
struct proto udp_prot = {
	.name		   = "UDP",
	.owner		   = THIS_MODULE,
	.close		   = udp_lib_close,
	.connect	   = ip4_datagram_connect,
	.disconnect	   = udp_disconnect,
	.ioctl		   = udp_ioctl,
	.destroy	   = udp_destroy_sock,
	.setsockopt	   = udp_setsockopt,
	.getsockopt	   = udp_getsockopt,
	.sendmsg	   = udp_sendmsg,
	.recvmsg	   = udp_recvmsg,
	.sendpage	   = udp_sendpage,
	.backlog_rcv	   = __udp_queue_rcv_skb,
	.hash		   = udp_lib_hash,
	.unhash		   = udp_lib_unhash,
	.rehash		   = udp_v4_rehash,
	.get_port	   = udp_v4_get_port,
	.memory_allocated  = &udp_memory_allocated,
	.sysctl_mem	   = sysctl_udp_mem,
	.sysctl_wmem	   = &sysctl_udp_wmem_min,
	.sysctl_rmem	   = &sysctl_udp_rmem_min,
	.obj_size	   = sizeof(struct udp_sock),
	.slab_flags	   = SLAB_DESTROY_BY_RCU,
	.h.udp_table	   = &udp_table,
#ifdef CONFIG_COMPAT
	.compat_setsockopt = compat_udp_setsockopt,
	.compat_getsockopt = compat_udp_getsockopt,
#endif
	.clear_sk	   = sk_prot_clear_portaddr_nulls,
};


现在介绍struct socket结构体中一个属性struct sock类型的结构体指针,这个结构体就是传输层的套接字,所有套接字通过该结构来使用网络协议的所有服务。定义如下:

struct sock {
	/*
	 * Now struct inet_timewait_sock also uses sock_common, so please just
	 * don't add nothing before this first member (__sk_common) --acme
	 */
	struct sock_common	__sk_common;
#define sk_node			__sk_common.skc_node
#define sk_nulls_node		__sk_common.skc_nulls_node
#define sk_refcnt		__sk_common.skc_refcnt
#define sk_tx_queue_mapping	__sk_common.skc_tx_queue_mapping

#define sk_dontcopy_begin	__sk_common.skc_dontcopy_begin
#define sk_dontcopy_end		__sk_common.skc_dontcopy_end
#define sk_hash			__sk_common.skc_hash
#define sk_family		__sk_common.skc_family
#define sk_state		__sk_common.skc_state
#define sk_reuse		__sk_common.skc_reuse
#define sk_bound_dev_if		__sk_common.skc_bound_dev_if
#define sk_bind_node		__sk_common.skc_bind_node
#define sk_prot			__sk_common.skc_prot
#define sk_net			__sk_common.skc_net
	socket_lock_t		sk_lock;
	struct sk_buff_head	sk_receive_queue;
	/*
	 * The backlog queue is special, it is always used with
	 * the per-socket spinlock held and requires low latency
	 * access. Therefore we special case it's implementation.
	 * Note : rmem_alloc is in this structure to fill a hole
	 * on 64bit arches, not because its logically part of
	 * backlog.
	 */
	struct {
		atomic_t	rmem_alloc;
		int		len;
		struct sk_buff	*head;
		struct sk_buff	*tail;
	} sk_backlog;
#define sk_rmem_alloc sk_backlog.rmem_alloc
	int			sk_forward_alloc;
#ifdef CONFIG_RPS
	__u32			sk_rxhash;
#endif
	atomic_t		sk_drops;
	int			sk_rcvbuf;

	struct sk_filter __rcu	*sk_filter;
	struct socket_wq __rcu	*sk_wq;

#ifdef CONFIG_NET_DMA
	struct sk_buff_head	sk_async_wait_queue;
#endif

#ifdef CONFIG_XFRM
	struct xfrm_policy	*sk_policy[2];
#endif
	unsigned long 		sk_flags;
	struct dst_entry	*sk_dst_cache;
	spinlock_t		sk_dst_lock;
	atomic_t		sk_wmem_alloc;
	atomic_t		sk_omem_alloc;
	int			sk_sndbuf;
	struct sk_buff_head	sk_write_queue;
	kmemcheck_bitfield_begin(flags);
	unsigned int		sk_shutdown  : 2,
				sk_no_check  : 2,
				sk_userlocks : 4,
				sk_protocol  : 8,
				sk_type      : 16;
	kmemcheck_bitfield_end(flags);
	int			sk_wmem_queued;
	gfp_t			sk_allocation;
	int			sk_route_caps;
	int			sk_route_nocaps;
	int			sk_gso_type;
	unsigned int		sk_gso_max_size;
	int			sk_rcvlowat;
	unsigned long	        sk_lingertime;
	struct sk_buff_head	sk_error_queue;
	struct proto		*sk_prot_creator;
	rwlock_t		sk_callback_lock;
	int			sk_err,
				sk_err_soft;
	unsigned short		sk_ack_backlog;
	unsigned short		sk_max_ack_backlog;
	__u32			sk_priority;
	struct pid		*sk_peer_pid;
	const struct cred	*sk_peer_cred;
	long			sk_rcvtimeo;
	long			sk_sndtimeo;
	void			*sk_protinfo;
	struct timer_list	sk_timer;
	ktime_t			sk_stamp;
	struct socket		*sk_socket;
	void			*sk_user_data;
	struct page		*sk_sndmsg_page;
	struct sk_buff		*sk_send_head;
	__u32			sk_sndmsg_off;
	int			sk_write_pending;
#ifdef CONFIG_SECURITY
	void			*sk_security;
#endif
	__u32			sk_mark;
	u32			sk_classid;
	void			(*sk_state_change)(struct sock *sk);
	void			(*sk_data_ready)(struct sock *sk, int bytes);
	void			(*sk_write_space)(struct sock *sk);
	void			(*sk_error_report)(struct sock *sk);
  	int			(*sk_backlog_rcv)(struct sock *sk,
						  struct sk_buff *skb);  
	void                    (*sk_destruct)(struct sock *sk);
};
若sk_family是PF_INET,则sk_type可以取值:SOCK_STREAM,SOCK_DGRAM,SOCK_RAW。其中sk_prot就是指向具体协议的操作集,如TCP协议就为tcp_prot。

若要将协议族操作集和具体协议操作集整合起来为IP协议提供接口,就需要下面的结构体定义:

struct inet_protosw {
	struct list_head list;

        /* These two fields form the lookup key.  */
	unsigned short	 type;	   /* This is the 2nd argument to socket(2). */
	unsigned short	 protocol; /* This is the L4 protocol number.  */

	struct proto	 *prot;
	const struct proto_ops *ops;
  
	char             no_check;   /* checksum on rcv/xmit/none? */
	unsigned char	 flags;      /* See INET_PROTOSW_* below.  */
};

INET三种套接字定义的inetsw_array数组如下:
static struct inet_protosw inetsw_array[] =
{
	{
		.type =       SOCK_STREAM,
		.protocol =   IPPROTO_TCP,
		.prot =       &tcp_prot,
		.ops =        &inet_stream_ops,
		.no_check =   0,
		.flags =      INET_PROTOSW_PERMANENT |
			      INET_PROTOSW_ICSK,
	},

	{
		.type =       SOCK_DGRAM,
		.protocol =   IPPROTO_UDP,
		.prot =       &udp_prot,
		.ops =        &inet_dgram_ops,
		.no_check =   UDP_CSUM_DEFAULT,
		.flags =      INET_PROTOSW_PERMANENT,
       },

       {
		.type =       SOCK_DGRAM,
		.protocol =   IPPROTO_ICMP,
		.prot =       &ping_prot,
		.ops =        &inet_dgram_ops,
		.no_check =   UDP_CSUM_DEFAULT,
		.flags =      INET_PROTOSW_REUSE,
       },

       {
	       .type =       SOCK_RAW,
	       .protocol =   IPPROTO_IP,	/* wild card */
	       .prot =       &raw_prot,
	       .ops =        &inet_sockraw_ops,
	       .no_check =   UDP_CSUM_DEFAULT,
	       .flags =      INET_PROTOSW_REUSE,
       }
};
不过,在初始化的时候我们会将上面数组中的的元素按套接字类型插入inetsw链表数组中。其定义如下:
static struct list_head inetsw[SOCK_MAX];


那 内核中套接字struct socket、struct sock、struct inet_sock、struct tcp_sock、struct raw_sock、struct udp_sock、struct inet_connection_sock、struct inet_timewait_sock和 struct tcp_timewait_sock的关系是怎样的呢?

*struct socket这个是BSD层的socket,应用程序会用过系统调用首先创建该类型套接字,它和具体协议无关。

*struct inet_sock是INET协议族使用的socket结构,可以看成位于INET层,是struct sock的一个扩展。它的第一个属性就是struct sock结构。

*struct sock是与具体传输层协议相关的套接字,所有内核的操作都基于这个套接字。

*struct tcp_sock是TCP协议的套接字表示,它是对struct inet_connection_sock的扩展,其第一个属性就是struct inet_connection_sock inet_conn。

*struct raw_sock是原始类型的套接字表示,ICMP协议就使用这种套接字,其是对struct sock的扩展。

*struct udp_sock是UDP协议套接字表示,其是对struct inet_sock套接字的扩展。

*struct inet_connetction_sock是所有面向连接协议的套接字,是对struct inet_sock套接字扩展。

后面两个是用于控制超时的套接字。

就拿struct inet_sock和struct sock为例来说明,为什么内核中可以直接将sock结构体首地址强制转换成inet_sock的首地址?并且inet_sock的大小要大于sock,直接进行如下强制转换

inet = inet_sk(sk);

static inline struct inet_sock *inet_sk(const struct sock *sk)
{
	return (struct inet_sock *)sk;
}

不会发生内存非法访问吗?!那就是在分配的时候并不只是分配的struct sock结构体大小的存储空间!

可以细看sock结构体分配的代码:

struct sock *sk_alloc(struct net *net, int family, gfp_t priority,
		      struct proto *prot)
{
	struct sock *sk;

	sk = sk_prot_alloc(prot, priority | __GFP_ZERO, family);
	if (sk) {
		sk->sk_family = family;
		sk->sk_prot = sk->sk_prot_creator = prot;
		sock_lock_init(sk);
		sock_net_set(sk, get_net(net));
		atomic_set(&sk->sk_wmem_alloc, 1);

		sock_update_classid(sk);
	}

	return sk;
}
紧接着调用sk_prot_alloc函数分配:
static struct sock *sk_prot_alloc(struct proto *prot, gfp_t priority,
		int family)
{
	struct sock *sk;
	struct kmem_cache *slab;

	slab = prot->slab;
	if (slab != NULL) {
		sk = kmem_cache_alloc(slab, priority & ~__GFP_ZERO);
		..............................
	} else
		sk = kmalloc(prot->obj_size, priority);

	.....................

	return sk;
......................
}
上面的代码中首先判断高速缓存中是否可用,如果不可用,直接在内存分配空间,不过大小都是prot->obj_size。

如果是TCP协议中的tcp_prot中指明该属性的大小为.obj_size = sizeof(struct tcp_sock)。

所以,程序中给struct sock指针分配的不是该结构体的实际大小,而是大于其实际大小,以便其扩展套接字的属性占用。
以图例说明tcp_sock是如何从sock强制转换来的:

下篇将分析套接字的绑定、连接等一系列操作的实现。

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